Struvite stone: Diagnosed, Treatment, Prevent.

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Struvite stone

Struvite stone :

(magnesium and ammonium phosphate) is a phosphate mineral with the formula: NH4MgPO4 · 6H2O. Struvite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system in the form of pyramidal crystals from white to yellowish or brownish-white or in mica-like forms. It is moderately soluble in neutral and alkaline conditions, but easily soluble in acid.

Struvite precipitates in the alkaline urine, forming kidney stones. Struvite is the most common mineral found in urinary tract stones in dogs and is also found in urinary tract stones in cats and humans. Struvite stone is potentiated by a bacterial infection that hydrolyzes urea to ammonium and raises the pH of the urine to neutral or alkaline values. Organisms that divide urea include Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, and Mycoplasma.
Struvite stone causes
Even in the absence of infection, the accumulation of struvite stone crystals in the urinary bladder is a common problem in domestic cats, with symptoms that include difficulty urinating (which can be confused with constipation) or blood in the urine (hematuria). The protein auxin, a protein excreted in large quantities in cat urine that acts to produce a feline pheromone, has recently been found to cause the nucleation of struvite crystals in a model system that contains the ions needed to form struvite. This may explain part of the excess production of struvite in domestic cats. In the past, surgery was required to remove the struvite uroliths in cats; At present, special diets that are acidifying and low in magnesium can be used to dissolve sterile struvite stone.


The upper urinary tract stones that affect the renal pelvis and extend into at least 2 chalices are classified as deer antler calculations. Although all types of urinary calculi can potentially form deer antler calculations, approximately 75% is composed of a struvite-carbonate-apatite matrix.


Struvite stone Diagnosed :

 
  • Blood test. Your doctor may collect a blood sample to check the levels of waste products such as calcium and uric acid that can form stones.
  • Urine tests A urinalysis examines a sample of your urine to diagnose a urinary tract infection.
  • Urine culture for 24 hours. Then, a laboratory verifies the cultivation of stone-forming substances such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid.
  • Bone scan. The radiation creates an image of your kidneys and other organs in your urinary tract.
  • Computed tomography. This test takes X-ray images from many different angles to produce detailed images of your urinary tract.
  • Magnetic Resonance A powerful magnetic field and radio waves create detailed images of your urinary tract.
  • Intravenous urography. This test uses x-rays and a special dye to detect problems in the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

 

Their treatment :


It is important to treat struvite stone because if they grow large enough, they can damage your kidney and cause life-threatening infections.

NLP is the preferred treatment for people with stones that are too large to be broken down by SWL. The surgeon makes a small incision in the back and inserts an endoscope and several small instruments. Then the stone is removed through the incision. You will be asleep during surgery.

SWL uses intense shock waves directed from a machine outside your body to divide the stones into small pieces. After this treatment, the pieces of stone will pass through your urinary tract and go to the urine. If your stones are very large or if you have many, this procedure may need to be done more than once.

If NLP and SWL are not options, your doctor may recommend that you undergo open surgery to remove the stones. The surgeon will make a larger incision in your abdomen or side and remove the stones from the kidney. If your kidney has been badly damaged by stones, it may be necessary to remove it.

Sewage treatment :


Struvite can be a problem in the treatment of sewage and wastewater, especially after anaerobic digesters release ammonium and phosphate from the waste material. Struvite can form a scale in lines and belts, in centrifuges and pumps, pipes of obstruction systems and other equipment, including the anaerobic digester itself. Struvite, also known as MAP, is formed when there is a mol/mol to mol (1: 1: 1) ratio of magnesium, ammonia, and phosphate in wastewater. Magnesium is found in the soil, in seawater, and in drinking water. Ammonia is broken down by urea in sewage and phosphate, which is found through food, soap, and detergents.

Having a struvite scale in a wastewater treatment system can cause great inefficiency within the plant or operation due to the clogging of pipes, pumps, and equipment. There have been some options to solve this problem, including the replacement of the pipes, or the use of a hydro-jetter or a mechanical grinder to eliminate them. But many lines can be underground and any of these options involves considerable downtime and labor. Chemical cleaning is now predominantly used to eliminate struvite systems. Chemical cleaning products have been developed to eliminate and prevent struvite with minimal downtime. An electrical method without chemicals has even been developed and successfully tested to eliminate and prevent struvite in wastewater treatment plants in the USA. UU The electronic sine wave it produces is sent through the water in the pipeline and, therefore, also effective in underground pipes.

Prevent :


After the surgery, your doctor may prescribe medication to prevent more stones from forming.

If you have a recurring problem with struvite stone, your doctor may recommend taking small doses of antibiotics in the long term. This can help prevent urinary tract infections that can lead to stones.


Conclusion:

Consult your doctor if you have symptoms of kidney stones such as back and side pain, fever and frequent urination. Your doctor can perform tests to determine if you have urinary stones and what type they are.

Treatments such as NLP and SWL can eliminate most struvite stone, especially if the stones are small. If you have large stones, fragments may remain after surgery. Some people will need a second surgery or other treatments.

Call your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical help for these more serious symptoms of a kidney stone:

Severe pain in your side or back.
fever and chills
Severe nausea and vomiting.

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